PCR and ELISA tests in Astana
ELISA analysis – enzyme immunoassay
ELISA (enzyme immunoassay) refers to immunological studies, in which most often, blood serum obtained from a vein is taken for examination.
The ELISA method allows you to obtain information about the interaction of the human immune system with an infectious agent. It is an indirect diagnostic method that does not directly detect the presence of infection in the human body, with the exception of detecting antigens in the sample. This assessment relies on the human immune system’s response when exposed to the infectious agent. Consequently, the body produces protective substances known as antibodies, which can be subsequently analyzed using ELISA.
Antibodies typically tested in medical laboratories belong to classes IgM, IgG, and total antibodies. The attending physician, by analyzing the presence or absence of specific antibody classes, can make conclusions about the stage of the infectious process, whether it’s acute, in a chronic state with remission, or in a chronic state with an acute exacerbation, based on the body’s immune response.
PCR analysis – polymerase chain reaction
PCR analysis, or polymerase chain reaction analysis, is a molecular genetic research method in which a sample is taken for examination, and it is possible to directly detect the infectious agent of interest. For instance, a plasma sample obtained from venous blood is commonly used to examine infectious agents such as hepatitis viruses and CMV. Similarly, sexually transmitted infections are typically detected by collecting samples from the urogenital tract, aiming to identify agents like chlamydia, mycoplasma, and ureaplasma.
PCR analysis is a direct method for detecting infection pathogens, allowing us to determine the presence of an infectious agent in the human body at the time of the study.
For a comprehensive understanding of the disease, it is essential to gather data from both ELISA analysis and PCR. A judicious choice and the appropriate combination of these research methods enable healthcare professionals to make informed decisions about treatment adjustments.